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People with Asperger’s syndrome may have problems communicating with others because they do not naturally learn the rules of conversation buy 160mg valsartan overnight delivery heart attack one direction lyrics. They may: • interrupt or talk over the speech of others • make irrelevant comments • have difficulty initiating and terminating conversations • use speech characterized by a lack of variation in pitch buy valsartan paypal prehypertension stage 1 stage 2, stress and rhythm • use overly pedantic or formal speech, particularly as they reach adolescence • stand too close when talking to someone • stare, use abnormal body posture or other strange body language • fail to understand gestures and facial expressions of others. Students with Asperger’s syndrome are of average to above average intelligence and may appear quite capable. Many students with Asperger’s syndrome are relatively proficient in their knowledge of facts and may have extensive factual information about a subject that absorbs them. However, they demonstrate relative weaknesses in comprehension and abstract thought, as well as in social cognition. Consequently, they experience academic problems, particularly with: • reading comprehension • problem solving • organizational skills • concept development • making inferences and judgements. Students with Asperger’s syndrome often have considerable difficulty adapting to change or 71 accepting failure. An estimated 50–90 percent of people with Asperger’s syndrome 72 have problems with motor coordination. The affected areas include locomotion, balance, manual dexterity, handwriting, rapid movements, rhythm and imitation of movements. Students with Asperger’s syndrome may be hypersensitive or hyposensitive to specific stimuli and may engage in unusual or repetitive behaviours to obtain a specific sensory stimulation. Many students diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome are inattentive, easily distracted and have received a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at one point in their 73 lives. They may experience some difficulty understanding and adapting to the social demands of school. Strategies Some strategies for teaching students with autism spectrum disorders may be applicable to students with Asperger’s syndrome, however it is important to consider the unique learning characteristics of individual students, provide support when needed and build on students’ strengths. The following chart identifies specific learning difficulties and offers a number of 74 possible classroom strategies. Students with Asperger’s Syndrome /135 © Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada 2003 Learning Difficulty Classroom Strategies Difficulties with language • has tendency to make irrelevant comments • use Comic Strip Conversations (Gray, 1994) to teach conversation skills related to specific problems • teach appropriate opening comments • teach conversational skills in small group settings • has tendency to interrupt • teach rules and cues regarding turn-taking in conversation • has tendency to talk on one topic and talk over the speech and when to reply, interrupt or change the topic of others • use audiotaped and videotaped conversations • has difficulty understanding complex language, following • teach student to seek assistance when confused directions and understanding intent of words with multiple • explain metaphors and words with double meanings meanings • encourage student to ask for an instruction to be repeated, simplified or written down when necessary • pause between instructions and check for understanding • limit oral questions to a number student can manage • watch videos to identify nonverbal expressions and their meanings Insistence on sameness • prepare student for potential change wherever possible • use pictures, schedules and social stories to indicate impending changes Impairment in social interaction • has difficulty understanding the rules of social interaction • provide clear expectations and rules for behaviour • is naive • explicitly teach the rules of social conduct • interprets literally what is said • teach student how to interact through social stories, • has difficulty reading the emotions of others modelling and role-playing • lacks tact • educate peers about how to respond to the student in social • has difficulty understanding unwritten rules and once interactions learned, may apply them rigidly • use other children as cues to indicate what to do • encourage cooperative games • provide supervision and support for the student at breaks and recess, as required • use a buddy system to assist the student during nonstructured times • teach the student how to start, maintain and end play • teach flexibility, cooperation and sharing • teach the student how to monitor his or her own behaviour • structure social skills groups to provide opportunities for direct instruction on specific skills and to practise actual events • teach relaxation techniques and designate a quiet place for relaxing • has problems with social distance • model and practise appropriate personal space • lacks awareness of personal space Restricted range of interests • limit perseverative discussions and questions • set firm expectations for the classroom but provide opportunities for student to pursue own interests • incorporate and expand on personal interests in activities 136/ Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders 2003 © Alberta Learning, Alberta, Canada Learning Difficulty Classroom Strategies Poor concentration • provide frequent teacher feedback and redirection • is often off task • break down assignments • is distractible • use visual organizers, semantic mapping and outlining • is disorganized • provide timed work sessions • has difficulty sustaining attention • reduce homework assignments • seat student at the front of the classroom • use nonverbal cues to get attention Poor organizational skills • use personal schedules and calendars • maintain lists of assignments • help student use to-do lists and checklists • place pictures on containers and lockers • use picture cues in lockers Poor motor coordination • involve student in fitness activities • take slower writing speed into account when giving assignments • provide extra time for tests • consider the use of computers for written assignments Academic difficulties • do not assume that student has understood simply because • has difficulty with comprehension he or she can re-state the information • has difficulty with problem solving • provide direct instruction as well as modelling • has difficulty with abstract concepts • show examples of what is required • do not assume student has understood what is read—check for comprehension, supplement instruction and use visual supports • break tasks down into smaller steps or present in another way • be as concrete as possible in presenting new concepts and abstract material • use activity-based learning where possible • use graphic organizers, such as semantic maps, webs • use outlines to help student take notes, organize and categorize information • avoid verbal overload • capitalize on strengths. While the information was significantly altered to preserve confidentiality, the case studies show the real needs of students with autism spectrum disorders and how teachers can plan to meet those needs. These case studies are provided to show the types of goals, objectives and teaching strategies that are often implemented with students with autism spectrum disorders. It is important to remember that every education program should be individualized to meet students’ identified needs. She received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability when she was four years old. John Akins, Karen’s kindergarten teacher, and Jane Wilson, the teacher assistant, observed Karen in her child care placement last June and met with the supported child care consultant who was familiar with Karen’s program in the preschool setting. She developed a pattern of repetitive rocking which continued until she was four years old. At that age, she developed a behaviour pattern of tantrums that included screaming, kicking and throwing herself on the floor. Karen becomes agitated at school and at home when the environment becomes busy or noisy. Interestingly, the noises of bouncing balls and running feet in the gym do not bother her. She has tantrums when she is over-stimulated or when she does not get what she wants, but is easily redirected or calmed in a quieter area of the classroom.

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After a child has a diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome confirmed generic valsartan 80mg with visa blood pressure chart low, the clinician may then receive another referral for the diagnostic assessment of a sibling or relative of the child discount 40 mg valsartan amex blood pressure tracking chart printable. The diagnosis may be confirmed and clinical experience has indicated that some families have children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome within and between genera tions. This has been confirmed in some of the autobiographies of adults with Asperger’s syndrome (Willey 1999). However, the subsequent diagnostic assessment may indicate that the level of expression of the characteristics is too ‘mild’ for a diagnosis, or the person has a number of ‘fragments’ of Asperger’s syndrome that are insufficient for a diagnosis. Nevertheless, the person may benefit from some of the strategies that are designed for the characteristics or fragments that are present in his or her profile of abilities. Recognition of the signs of Asperger’s syndrome from the media Watching a television programme or news item that explains Asperger’s syndrome, or reading a magazine article or popular autobiography by an adult with Asperger’s syndrome, may be the starting point for some people to seek a diagnostic assessment for themselves or a family member, colleague or friend. In Australia, I recently explained the nature of Asperger’s syndrome on a national ‘live’ television programme, and the switch board of the television company was subsequently inundated with calls from parents who recognized the signs of Asperger’s syndrome in their adult son or daughter who, due to their age, had never had access to the diagnostic knowledge that is available for children today. In the next few years there is likely to be a deluge of referrals of adults for a diagnostic assessment for Asperger’s syndrome. It is important to remember that many typical women feel that their partner does not understand what they are thinking or feeling, and that many natural characteristics of males could be per ceived as signs of Asperger’s syndrome. Nevertheless, I have noted an increase in refer rals from relationship counsellors who are becoming aware of how to recognize genuine signs of Asperger’s syndrome in couples who are seeking relationship counselling (Aston 2003). Employment problems Although the person with Asperger’s syndrome may achieve academic success, difficul ties with social skills may affect his or her performance at a job interview, the social or team aspects of employment, or the understanding of social conventions such as standing too close or looking at someone too long. An assessment by a careers guidance agency, government employment agency or the personnel department of a company may be the first step down the pathway to recognition of Asperger’s syndrome. There is probably a high rate of Asperger’s syndrome among the chronically unemployed. Another diagnostic pathway in the area of employment is a change in job expecta tions. This can be, for example, a promotion to management, requiring interpersonal skills, and conferring responsibilities that demand planning and organizational abilities which can be elusive in some adults with Asperger’s syndrome. There can also be issues of not accepting conventional procedures, and difficulties with time management, and recognizing and accepting the organizational hierarchy. The very young child with Asperger’s syndrome may not be aware of being different from other children of his or her age. However, adults and other children will become increasingly aware that the child does not behave, think or play like other children. The initial opinion of adults within the extended family and school may be that the child is rude and selfish, while peers may think that the child is just weird. If there is no diagno sis and explanation, others will make moral judgements that will inevitably have a detri mental effect on the child’s self-esteem and lead to inappropriate attitudes and consequences. Gradually the child will recognize that he or she is perceiving and experiencing the world in an unusual way and will become concerned about being different from other children. This is not only in terms of different interests, priorities and social knowledge but also in terms of frequent criticisms by peers and adults. Claire Sainsbury was about eight years old: Here is one of my most vivid memories of school; I am standing in a corner of the playground as usual, as far away as possible from people who might bump into me or shout, gazing into the sky and absorbed in my own thoughts. I am eight or nine years old and have begun to realize that I am different in some nameless but all-pervasive way.

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